Metals in the environment

"The state of the science on metal mixtures in the environment"



More on metal mixtures modelling

Special Section: Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation:

Characterization of the effects of binary metal mixtures on short-term uptake of Ag, Cu, and Ni by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss):

A test of the additivity of acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of ni with Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna, using the inflection point of the concentration–response curves:

Effect of age on acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in individual-metal exposures to Daphnia magna neonates:

Acute toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna:

Toxicity of binary metal mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms: Experimental design, acute and chronic effects:

Comparison of chronic mixture toxicity of Ni-Zn-Cu and Ni-Zn-Cu-Cd mixtures between Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata:

Reproductive toxicity of binary and ternary mixture combinations of nickel, zinc, and lead to Ceriodaphnia dubia is best predicted with the independent action model:


More on bioavailability of metals?


The biotic ligand model: a model of the acute toxicity of metals to aquatic life:

An Evaluation of the Bioavailability and Aquatic Toxicity Attributed to Ambient Copper Concentrations in Surface Waters from Several Parts of the World:

Accounting for metal bioavailability in assessing water quality: A step change?


Environment Agency, Environmental Quality Standards for trace metals in the aquatic environment:

Metals Environmental Risk Assessment Guidance (MERAG):

Web Links

Models and Tools

Steve Lofts CEH describes a Biotic Ligand Model.

Scientific queries

Technical explanations and links to papers/abstracts

Use in regulation

Based on the EA guidance?

Eurometaux bioavailability

Rapid Removal from the Water Column documents

Kent State report on Nickel-specific research. Report available at:

University of Michigan reports on Copper and Nickel-specific research (Burton and Hudson, 2018a, 2018b). Reports available at:; and

Mutch Associates report on the experimental and modeling studies for Copper removal from surface waters (Rader and Carbonaro, 2018), available from:

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Many organizations have contributed to our understanding of metals mixtures in the environment. More in depth information in the form of reports, manuscripts, videos, etc. can be found here

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