More on metal mixtures modelling
Special Section: Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation:
Characterization of the effects of binary metal mixtures on short-term uptake of Ag, Cu, and Ni by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss):
A test of the additivity of acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of ni with Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna, using the inflection point of the concentration–response curves:
Effect of age on acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in individual-metal exposures to Daphnia magna neonates:
Acute toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna:
Toxicity of binary metal mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms: Experimental design, acute and chronic effects:
Comparison of chronic mixture toxicity of Ni-Zn-Cu and Ni-Zn-Cu-Cd mixtures between Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata:
Reproductive toxicity of binary and ternary mixture combinations of nickel, zinc, and lead to Ceriodaphnia dubia is best predicted with the independent action model:
More on bioavailability of metals?
The biotic ligand model: a model of the acute toxicity of metals to aquatic life:
An Evaluation of the Bioavailability and Aquatic Toxicity Attributed to Ambient Copper Concentrations in Surface Waters from Several Parts of the World:
Accounting for metal bioavailability in assessing water quality: A step change?
Environment Agency, Environmental Quality Standards for trace metals in the aquatic environment:
Metals Environmental Risk Assessment Guidance (MERAG):
Models and Tools
Steve Lofts CEH describes a Biotic Ligand Model.
Use in regulation
Rapid Removal from the Water Column documents
Kent State report on Nickel-specific research. Report available at:
University of Michigan reports on Copper and Nickel-specific research (Burton and Hudson, 2018a, 2018b). Reports available at:
Mutch Associates report on the experimental and modeling studies for Copper removal from surface waters (Rader and Carbonaro, 2018), available from: